NewEnergyNews: TODAY’S STUDY: HOW TO OPEN UP NEW ENERGY ON WESTERN PUBLIC LAND

NewEnergyNews

Gleanings from the web and the world, condensed for convenience, illustrated for enlightenment, arranged for impact...

Every day is Earth Day.

YESTERDAY

  • THE STUDY: THE ECONOMIC ADVANTAGES OF NEW ENERGY – THE NORTH CAROLINA CASE
  • QUICK NEWS, April 22: ON EARTH – A QUICK LOOK BACK; OBSERVATIONS FOR EARTH DAY (continued); OBAMA ADMIN UPS BACKING FOR NEW ENERGY
  • -------------------

    GET THE DAILY HEADLINES EMAIL: CLICK HERE TO SUBMIT YOUR EMAIL ADDRESS OR SEND YOUR EMAIL ADDRESS TO: herman@NewEnergyNews.net

    -------------------

    THE DAY BEFORE

  • THE STUDY: THE U.S. NEW ENERGY MARKET NOW AND AHEAD
  • QUICK NEWS, April 21: OBSERVATIONS FOR EARTH DAY; BACK TO OWNERSHIP IN SOLAR; 15X GROWTH FOR ASIA PACIFIC MIDROGRIDS
  • THE DAY BEFORE THE DAY BEFORE

  • Weekend Video: Happy Birthday Solar Cell
  • Weekend Video: Offshore Wind As A Hurricane A Wall
  • Weekend Video: Get On The Climate Policy Train
  • THE DAY BEFORE THAT

  • FRIDAY WORLD HEADLINE-THE SOLAR CELL TURNS 60, Part 5 (continued from yesterday)
  • FRIDAY WORLD HEADLINE-THE SOLAR CELL TURNS 60, Part 6
  • FRIDAY WORLD HEADLINE-THE SOLAR CELL TURNS 60, Part 7
  • FRIDAY WORLD HEADLINE-THE SOLAR CELL TURNS 60, Part 8
  • AND THE DAY BEFORE THAT

    THINGS-TO-THINK-ABOUT THURSDAY, April 17:

  • TTTA Thursday-THE SOLAR CELL TURNS 60, Part 1
  • TTTA Thursday-THE SOLAR CELL TURNS 60, Part 2
  • TTTA Thursday-THE SOLAR CELL TURNS 60, Part 3
  • TTTA Thursday-THE SOLAR CELL TURNS 60, Part 4
  • THE LAST DAY UP HERE

  • THE STUDY: NEW ENERGY POSSIBILITIES – THE MICHIGAN EXAMPLE
  • QUICK NEWS, April 16: THE RACE AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE; THE FAST RISING POTENTIAL OF U.S. NEW ENERGY; BIG TEXAS WIND SHRINKS ELECTRICITY MRKT PRICE
  • --------------------------

    --------------------------

    Anne B. Butterfield of Daily Camera and Huffington Post, is a biweekly contributor to NewEnergyNews

  • Another Tipping Point: US Coal Supply Decline So Real Even West Virginia Concurs (REPORT)

    November 26, 2013 (Huffington Post via NewEnergyNews)

    Everywhere we turn, environmental news is filled with horrid developments and glimpses of irreversible tipping points.

    Just a handful of examples are breathtaking: Scientists have dared to pinpoint the years at which locations around the world may reach runaway heat, and in the northern hemisphere it's well in sight for our children: 2047. Survivors of Superstorm Sandy are packing up as costs of repair and insurance go out of reach, one threat that climate science has long predicted. Or we could simply talk about the plight of bees and the potential impact on food supplies. Surprising no one who explores the Pacific Ocean, sailor Ivan MacFadyen described long a journey dubbed The Ocean is Broken, in which he saw vast expanses of trash and almost no wildlife save for a whale struggling a with giant tumor on its head, evoking the tons of radioactive water coming daily from Fukushima's lamed nuclear power center. Rampaging fishing methods and ocean acidification are now reported as causing the overpopulation of jellyfish that have jammed the intakes of nuclear plants around the world. Yet the shutting down of nuclear plants is a trifling setback compared with the doom that can result in coming days at Fukushima in the delicate job to extract bent and spent fuel rods from a ruined storage tank, a project dubbed "radioactive pick up sticks."

    With all these horrors to ponder you wouldn't expect to hear that you should also worry about the United States running out of coal. But you would be wrong, says Leslie Glustrom, founder and research director for Clean Energy Action. Her contention is that we've passed the peak in our nation's legendary supply of coal that powers over one-third of our grid capacity. This grim news is faithfully spelled out in three reports, with the complete story told in Warning: Faulty Reporting of US Coal Reserves (pdf). (Disclosure: I serve on CEA's board and have known the author for years.)

    Glustrom's research presents a sea change in how we should understand our energy challenges, or experience grim consequences. It's not only about toxic and heat-trapping emissions anymore; it's also about having enough energy generation to run big cities and regions that now rely on coal. Glustrom worries openly about how commerce will go on in many regions in 2025 if they don't plan their energy futures right.

    2013-11-05-FigureES4_FULL.jpgclick to enlarge

    Scrutinizing data for prices on delivered coal nationwide, Glustrom's new report establishes that coal's price has risen nearly 8 percent annually for eight years, roughly doubling, due mostly to thinner, deeper coal seams plus costlier diesel transport expenses. Higher coal prices in a time of "cheap" natural gas and affordable renewables means coal companies are lamed by low or no profits, as they hold debt levels that dwarf their market value and carry very high interest rates.

    2013-11-05-Table_ES2_FULL.jpgclick to enlarge

    2013-11-05-Figure_ES2_FULL.jpg

    One leading coal company, Patriot, filed for bankruptcy last year; many others are also struggling under bankruptcy watch and not eager to upgrade equipment for the tougher mining ahead. Add to this the bizarre event this fall of a coal lease failing to sell in Wyoming's Powder River Basin, the "Fort Knox" of the nation's coal supply, with some pundits agreeing this portends a tightening of the nation's coal supply, not to mention the array of researchers cited in the report. Indeed, at the mid point of 2013, only 488 millions tons of coal were produced in the U.S.; unless a major catch up happens by year-end, 2013 may be as low in production as 1993.

    Coal may exist in large quantities geologically, but economically, it's getting out of reach, as confirmed by US Geological Survey in studies indicating that less than 20 percent of US coal formations are economically recoverable, as explored in the CEA report. To Glustrom, that number plus others translate to 10 to 20 years more of burning coal in the US. It takes capital, accessible coal with good heat content and favorable market conditions to assure that mining companies will stay in business. She has observed a classic disconnect between camps of professionals in which geologists tend to assume money is "infinite" and financial analysts tend to assume that available coal is "infinite." Both biases are faulty and together they court disaster, and "it is only by combining thoughtful estimates of available coal and available money that our country can come to a realistic estimate of the amount of US coal that can be mined at a profit." This brings us back to her main and rather simple point: "If the companies cannot make a profit by mining coal they won't be mining for long."

    No one is more emphatic than Glustrom herself that she cannot predict the future, but she presents trend lines that are robust and confirmed assertively by the editorial board at West Virginia Gazette:

    Although Clean Energy Action is a "green" nonprofit opposed to fossil fuels, this study contains many hard economic facts. As we've said before, West Virginia's leaders should lower their protests about pollution controls, and instead launch intelligent planning for the profound shift that is occurring in the Mountain State's economy.

    The report "Warning, Faulty Reporting of US Coal Reserves" and its companion reports belong in the hands of energy and climate policy makers, investors, bankers, and rate payer watchdog groups, so that states can plan for, rather than react to, a future with sea change risk factors.

    [Clean Energy Action is fundraising to support the dissemination of this report through December 11. Contribute here.]

    It bears mentioning that even China is enacting a "peak coal" mentality, with Shanghai declaring that it will completely ban coal burning in 2017 with intent to close down hundreds of coal burning boilers and industrial furnaces, or shifting them to clean energy by 2015. And Citi Research, in "The Unimaginable: Peak Coal in China," took a look at all forms of energy production in China and figured that demand for coal will flatten or peak by 2020 and those "coal exporting countries that have been counting on strong future coal demand could be most at risk." Include US coal producers in that group of exporters.

    Our world is undergoing many sorts of change and upheaval. We in the industrialized world have spent about a century dismissing ocean trash, overfishing, pesticides, nuclear hazard, and oil and coal burning with a shrug of, "Hey it's fine, nature can manage it." Now we're surrounded by impacts of industrial-grade consumption, including depletion of critical resources and tipping points of many kinds. It is not enough to think of only ourselves and plan for strictly our own survival or convenience. The threat to animals everywhere, indeed to whole systems of the living, is the grief-filled backdrop of our times. It's "all hands on deck" at this point of human voyaging, and in our nation's capital, we certainly don't have that. Towns, states and regions need to plan fiercely and follow through. And a fine example is Boulder Colorado's recent victory to keep on track for clean energy by separating from its electric utility that makes 59 percent of its power from coal.

    Clean Energy Action is disseminating "Warning: Faulty Reporting of US Coal Reserves" for free to all manner of relevant professionals who should be concerned about long range trends which now include the supply risks of coal, and is supporting that outreach through a fundraising campaign.

    [Clean Energy Action is fundraising to support the dissemination of this report through December 11. Contribute here.]

    Author's note: Want to support my work? Please "fan" me at Huffpost Denver, here (http://www.huffingtonpost.com/anne-butterfield). Thanks.

    -------------------

    Anne's previous NewEnergyNews columns:

  • Another Tipping Point: US Coal Supply Decline So Real Even West Virginia Concurs (REPORT), November 26, 2013
  • SOLAR FOR ME BUT NOT FOR THEE ~ Xcel's Push to Undermine Rooftop Solar, September 20, 2013
  • NEW BILLS AND NEW BIRDS in Colorado's recent session, May 20, 2013
  • Lies, damned lies and politicians (October 8, 2012)
  • Colorado's Elegant Solution to Fracking (April 23, 2012)
  • Shale Gas: From Geologic Bubble to Economic Bubble (March 15, 2012)
  • Taken for granted no more (February 5, 2012)
  • The Republican clown car circus (January 6, 2012)
  • Twenty-Somethings of Colorado With Skin in the Game (November 22, 2011)
  • Occupy, Xcel, and the Mother of All Cliffs (October 31, 2011)
  • Boulder Can Own Its Power With Distributed Generation (June 7, 2011)
  • The Plunging Cost of Renewables and Boulder's Energy Future (April 19, 2011)
  • Paddling Down the River Denial (January 12, 2011)
  • The Fox (News) That Jumped the Shark (December 16, 2010)
  • Click here for an archive of Butterfield columns

    -------------------

    Some details about NewEnergyNews and the man behind the curtain: Herman K. Trabish, Agua Dulce, CA., Doctor with my hands, Writer with my head, Student of New Energy and Human Experience with my heart

    email: herman@NewEnergyNews.net

    -------------------

    Your intrepid reporter

    -------------------

      A tip of the NewEnergyNews cap to Phillip Garcia for crucial assistance in the design implementation of this site. Thanks, Phillip.

    -------------------

    Pay a visit to the HARRY BOYKOFF page at Basketball Reference, sponsored by NewEnergyNews and Oil In Their Blood.

  • ---------------
  • Tuesday, February 28, 2012

    TODAY’S STUDY: HOW TO OPEN UP NEW ENERGY ON WESTERN PUBLIC LAND

    Western Region Renewable Energy Markets: Implications for the Bureau of Land Management
    Scott Haase, Lynn Billman, and Rachel Gelman, January 2012 (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Executive Summary

    At the request of the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) and the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory conducted an analysis to estimate the gap between the renewable energy (RE) generation supply and demand in the western states, and how that impacts BLM activities in this sector. The purpose of this analysis is also to provide DOI and BLM with an overview of RE markets, transmission planning efforts, and the role of BLM RE projects in the electricity markets of the 11 states (Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming) that comprise the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) Region.

    Without new policies at either the state or national level, and without the extension of special federal programs3that support the development of renewable electricity facilities, current state renewable portfolio standards (RPS) requirements will remain the primary driver for new RE deployment in the western United States. The quantitative portion of this analysis is based on RPS-driven demand, because projections for that demand are available. Other market drivers will also play a part in motivating investment decisions, such as the voluntary consumer market, other federal and state incentives of various types, utility decisions driven by improving RE economics and transmission availability, and other policies that arise from the desire of some states to diversify their economies and create green jobs. Modeling the impacts of these other drivers was beyond the scope of this analysis.

    click to enlarge

    In total, the WECC states in 2010 generated more than their total RPS requirement for RE [53,500 gigawatt-hours (GWh) generated compared to 49,500 GWh required for RPS policies]. To analyze the possible gap between demand and supply in RE in 2020, three datasets were compared: one for demand and two for supply. The comparison was made in terms of capacity, rather than generation, to meet the needs of the BLM.

    The source data for future demand was taken from analysis by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) of state RPS requirements (Barbose 2011), and includes projected RE generation required in 2020 to meet today’s RPS requirements. The total RPS-required demand for WECC states in 2020 is estimated to be 134,000 GWh. To convert this generation requirement into a demand in terms of capacity, three different approaches to capacity factors were used: LBNL’s approach based on an average capacity factor of 50%, a scenario using a lower capacity factor (26%), and a scenario using a higher capacity factor (53%). These different approaches estimated that WECC states in 2020 may require installed capacity in the range of 28,000 MW to 46,000 MW, as shown in Table ES-1. This required capacity does not include RE demand that may result from voluntary consumer demand or other types of market drivers. Various market factors could increase or decrease these market estimates. States could revise RPSs downward or electricity demand could decrease in the future. As a point of reference, nationwide voluntary consumer demand markets totaled 35,000 GWh in 2010.

    click to enlarge

    One source of data for supply was the current (2010) installed capacity of RE in WECC states. Actual installed nameplate capacity in December 2011 was about 18,400 MW (SNL 2011b), as shown in Table ES-1.
    The other source of data for supply was taken from planned projects as tracked by SNL Financial (SNL 2011a). Only planned projects that are under construction or in advanced development4were included in this analysis; the planned capacity of these projects totals about 18,900 MW. The output from planned projects was assigned to states based on the location of the power purchaser, if known (about two-thirds of the planned capacity); if not known, the output was assigned to the state where it is planned to be located (about one-third). Some larger power purchasers sell their power across several states. In those cases, a recent analysis (Hurlbut 2011) examining each utility’s power purchase agreements was used to apportion the output. The sum of actual installed capacity today and planned capacity is about 37,000 MW, as shown in Table ES-1.
    Compared to the range of required RE capacity, Table ES-1 shows that the gap between demand and supply in 2020 ranges from a potential oversupply of 8,000 MW to an unmet demand of 9,000 MW. Because the demand estimates were only based on meeting RPS requirements, other types of market drivers, as mentioned above, should also be investigated within each state, to present a more complete picture of 2020 demand.

    click to enlarge

    The BLM is required by the Energy Policy Act of 2005 to approve 10,000 MW of non- hydropower renewable energy to be located on public lands by 2015. To date, the BLM has approved or authorized more than 5,200 MW of RE on federal lands.5 Another approximately 8,000 MW in advanced development is included in the BLM list of 2011 and 2012 high priority projects. Based on this list and the progress made in 2011, the BLM appears to be on track to meet its EPAct goal of authorizing 10,000 MW by 2015, and indeed is likely to accomplish this goal by late 2012 or early 2013. The 5,200 MW of approved or authorized BLM projects represent 11%-18% of the projected capacity additions needed to meet RPS requirements in WECC states by 2020.

    It should be noted in Table ES-1 that California is the primary driver for RE development across the WECC, representing over half of projected 2020 demand. California’s demand has in-state as well as regional implications for transmission, and its policy environment moving forward will be a critical influence on future RE supply/demand balance.

    click to enlarge

    The transmission portion of the analysis concludes:

    In total, WECC’s highest priority (“foundational/common case”) transmission projects would add more than 5,500 line miles, which may ultimately improve the viability of some of BLM’s planned projects (WECC 2011).
    The interagency Rapid Response Transmission Team, initiated in 2011 through the U.S. Council on Environmental Quality, recently announced a coordinated and expedited permitting process for seven pilot transmission lines. Five of these lines are located in the western United States, and the BLM is the lead agency on four of these five lines. The focus on these lines represents a concentrated effort to connect potential renewable energy supplies with loads in the northwest and in southern California.
    Most of the BLM’s priority wind and geothermal projects are within 20 miles of existing transmission lines; most of BLM’s priority solar projects are within five miles of existing transmission lines. The analysis of whether there is capacity available on these lines, or whether they could be upgraded, has not been undertaken at this time.
    In general, new RE development projects sited close to load centers are less likely to be impacted by constraints of the current transmission infrastructure over the next 10 years; however, for more remotely sited RE projects, which will likely include some of the BLM projects, additional transmission infrastructure will be required. The additional 19,600 miles of new transmission lines (between 115 and 500 kV) currently planned for WECC states will support some of the expansion required for RE deployment required to meet western state mandatory RPS requirements. In some cases, the cost of some renewable resources located remote to load may offer the potential to reduce overall costs to ratepayers of meeting RPS requirements (WECC 2011).

    click to enlarge

    Suggestions for the BLM Renewable Energy Program

    Based on the analyses of supply and demand in WECC states, and BLM’s interests in leasing land for RE projects, a number of specific suggestions are provided below to advance BLM efforts in this sector.

    Update the RE project list. The information on BLM projects presented in this report changes frequently. Reviewing and updating the status of the projects on the master RE project list will help BLM prioritize necessary actions. The BLM Washington office has recently issued a call for information and data for geographic information systems (GIS) analysis of the wind and solar projects that the BLM’s state and field offices are tracking. This information will be useful for updating the status of projects for FY12.

    click to enlarge

    Focus on high-value project sites. In addition to the approved and high priority projects, BLM has received applications for more than 58,000 MW of renewable energy projects on public lands. The integration of BLM RE projects with planned transmission lines (especially the five pilot lines) will take on greater significance over the next few years, and BLM lands within potential interconnection distance of these lines are likely to see increased interest by industry, provided that these lands also meet all other suitability criteria for development. Further, any suitable BLM lands that are located close to load centers in states that are falling short of RPS requirements, or are located in regions that can potentially export to California, may see increased interest from developers. BLM should consider screening these lands, the solar energy zones, and other regions undergoing landscape-level planning (e.g., the Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan [DRECP], the West Chocolate Mountains Renewable Energy Evaluation Area, and the Arizona Restoration Design Project), against criteria designed to identify prime sites for future competitive leasing requests.

    click to enlarge

    Work with other federal agencies and developers to facilitate project siting. A number of federal agencies, including other DOI bureaus and agencies, the Department of Defense, Department of Homeland Security, Department of Agriculture, Department of Energy, and Department of Commerce are interested in deploying renewable energy technologies to meet their internal mission goals. As specific examples, the Environmental Protection Agency’s RE-Powering America’s Land program seeks to promote the development of renewable energy projects on brownfield sites such as abandoned mining lands, landfills, and contaminated lands. The Bureau of Indian Affairs and many tribes are working to develop renewables on tribal lands. Developers are also targeting state, local, and private lands. Similar to the approach being taken by the BLM’s Restoration Design project in Arizona, BLM could benefit from continuing to work cooperatively with other agencies and industry to identify and better understand the optimal suitable locations for development, regardless of land ownership.

    Site projects to help support critical national needs. Similar to the strategy of siting RE to take advantage of drivers and interests of other agencies and private developers, there may be opportunities to increase the strategic value of BLM’s RE projects by co-locating in prime areas that would also support national or regional energy security and resiliency, and support national environmental goals. As an example, BLM projects could be sited in locations that, in an emergency situation, could help supply power for critical loads such as water pumping and treatment facilities, hospitals, military installations, National Guard facilities, critical substations, radar sites, data centers, and other high value loads. In some cases, BLM may choose to work with the developers and recommend a shift of the BLM projects to other locations in the region that may offer greater strategic advantages. Continuing to avoid projects on environmentally sensitive lands will support national environmental goals. GIS and additional landscape level planning analyses such as those being undertaken by the DRECP and WECC’s Environmental Data Task Force can help identify these specific locations and opportunities. Specific examples and case studies could be assessed in greater detail.

    Identify options to integrate projects into existing fossil fuel generation. Siting RE projects near old, retiring or seldom used fossil fuel plants takes advantage of existing infrastructure and potential synergies. For example, BLM lands located near existing coal or gas plants may be candidate sites for solar thermal plants that are constructed from the outset to integrate fully into existing facilities. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Electric Power Research Institute recently completed an initial screening of fossil fuel plants that may be suitable for solar augmentation (NREL 2011). However, additional detailed work is needed in this area.

    click to enlarge

    Conclusions

    Absent new policy drivers and without the extension of the DOE loan guarantee program and Treasury’s 1603 program, state RPS requirements are likely to remain a primary driver for new RE deployment in the western United States. Assuming no additional policy incentives are implemented, projected RE demand for the WECC states by 2020 is 134,000 GWh. Installed capacity to meet that demand will need to be within the range of 28,000-46,000 MW.

    BLM projects that are currently authorized or approved should provide 11%-18% of the total capacity (9% of the generation) needed to meet the 2020 RPS requirements across WECC. If all of the currently authorized and 2011/2012 high priority BLM RE projects are deployed, RE projects on public lands will support 35% of the 2020 total requirement for new RE capacity.

    With 5,200 MW of RE authorized or approved, and approximately 8,000 MW of additional 2011 and 2012 high priority projects, the BLM appears to be on track to meet the EPAct 2005 requirement of approving 10,000 MW of RE on public lands by 2012.
    Most of the BLM’s priority wind and geothermal projects are within 20 miles of existing transmission lines; most of BLM’s priority solar projects are within five miles of existing transmission lines. New RE development projects sited close to load centers are not expected to be constrained by the current transmission infrastructure over the next 10 years; however, for more remotely sited RE projects, which some of the BLM projects will likely be, additional transmission infrastructure will be required. The additional 19,577 miles of new transmission lines (between 115 and 500 kV) currently planned for WECC states will support some of the expansion required for RE deployment required under western state mandatory RPS.

    click to enlarge

    Based on the analyses of supply and demand in WECC states, and BLM’s interest in leasing land for renewable energy projects, the following suggestions may be helpful for BLM:

    Update the renewable energy project list. The information on BLM projects presented in this report changes frequently. NREL suggests that at least once per year, BLM go through its master project list and obtain updates on the status of the projects on its books. The BLM Washington office has recently issued a call for information and data for GIS analysis of the wind and solar projects that BLM’s state and field offices are tracking. This information should be useful for updating that status of projects for FY12.

    Focus on high-value project sites. The integration of BLM renewable energy projects with planned transmission lines (especially the five pilot lines) will take on greater significance over the next few years, and BLM lands within potential interconnection distance of these lines are likely to see increased interest by industry. Also, any BLM lands that are located close to load in the desert southwest in states that are potentially falling short on RPS requirements may see increased interest from developers. BLM should consider screening these lands, and the solar energy zones and other regions undergoing landscape-level planning, against criteria designed to identify prime sites for development of competitive leasing requests.

    click to enlarge

    Work with other federal agencies and developers to facilitate project siting. A number of federal agencies, including other DOI bureaus and agencies, the Department of Defense, Department of Homeland Security, Department of Agriculture, Department of Energy, and Department of Commerce are interested in deploying renewable energy technologies to meet their internal mission goals. As specific examples, the Environmental Protection Agency’s RE-Powering America’s Land program seeks to promote the development of renewable energy projects on brownfield sites such as abandoned mining lands, landfills, and contaminated lands. The Bureau of Indian Affairs and many tribes are working to develop renewables on tribal lands. Developers are also targeting state, local and private lands. Just as BLM has done with its Restoration Design project in Arizona, the BLM could benefit from continuing to work cooperatively with other agencies to identify the most suitable locations for development, regardless of land ownership.

    click to enlarge

    Site projects to help support critical national needs. Similar to the strategy of siting projects to take advantage of projects and interests by other agencies and private developers, there may be opportunities to increase the strategic value of BLM’s renewable energy projects by co-locating in areas that would support national or regional energy security and resiliency, and support national environmental goals. As an example of this, BLM projects could be sited in locations that, in an emergency situation, could help provide power supply for critical loads such as water pumping and treatment facilities, hospitals, military installations, National Guard facilities, critical substations, radar sites, data centers, and other high value loads. In some cases, BLM may choose to work with the developers and recommend a shift of the BLM projects to other locations in the region that may offer greater strategic advantages. Continuing to avoid projects on environmentally sensitive lands will support national environmental goals. GIS analysis can help identify these specific opportunities.

    Identify options to integrate projects into existing fossil fuel generation. Siting renewable energy projects near old, retiring, or seldom used fossil fuel plants takes advantage of existing infrastructure and potential synergies. For example, BLM lands located near existing coal or gas plants may be candidate sites for solar thermal plants, including those with thermal storage, that are constructed from the outset to integrate fully into existing plants.

    1 Comments:

    At 9:55 AM, Blogger Ceal Smith said...

    This report is a mixed bag with some recommendations that would seem to favor distributed generation on EPA identified lands and smaller, more strategic generation closer to load centers. But the assumption that BLM has a "mandate" to sacrifice our ecologically valuable public lands when we have millions of acres of urban solestate baking in the sun is still erroneous.

     

    Post a Comment

    << Home

    *