NewEnergyNews

NewEnergyNews

Gleanings from the web and the world, condensed for convenience, illustrated for enlightenment, arranged for impact...

While the OFFICE of President remains in highest regard at NewEnergyNews, this administration's position on climate change makes it impossible to regard THIS president with respect. Below is the NewEnergyNews theme song until 2020.

The challenge now: To make every day Earth Day.

YESTERDAY

  • TODAY’S STUDY: How The New Energy Marketplace Is Growing And Shifting
  • QUICK NEWS, December 11: N.C. Millennial Women Unite For Climate Fight; The White House Threat To New Energy; What’s Bad News In The Tax Bill For New Energy
  • THE DAY BEFORE

  • Weekend Video: Tesla Adds World’s Biggest Battery To Aussie Wind
  • Weekend Video: Solar And The Next Utilities
  • Weekend Video: Wind Builders On Wind
  • THE DAY BEFORE THE DAY BEFORE

  • FRIDAY WORLD HEADLINE-The Climate Change Gourmet
  • FRIDAY WORLD HEADLINE-UK Study Says Yes To Solar-Powered Electric Trains
  • FRIDAY WORLD HEADLINE-First Aussie Ocean Wind Project Gets $8BIL Funding
  • FRIDAY WORLD HEADLINE-EU Solar Goes Digital To Open New Services
  • THE DAY BEFORE THAT

    THINGS-TO-THINK-ABOUT THURSDAY, December 7:

  • TTTA Thursday-City Mayors Unite To Fight Climate Change
  • TTTA Thursday-New Energy And Big Oil Unite Against Subsidies For Coal And Nuclear
  • TTTA Thursday-California Would Sell Only EVs After 2040
  • TTTA Thursday-Utilities In A Time Of Solar
  • THE LAST DAY UP HERE

  • ORIGINAL REPORTING: California Grid Users Collaborate to Streamline Communication Systems
  • ORIGINAL REPORTING: How To Get The Big Benefits Of Grid-Integrated Water Heaters
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    Founding Editor Herman K. Trabish

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    Some details about NewEnergyNews and the man behind the curtain: Herman K. Trabish, Agua Dulce, CA., Doctor with my hands, Writer with my head, Student of New Energy and Human Experience with my heart

    email: herman@NewEnergyNews.net

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      A tip of the NewEnergyNews cap to Phillip Garcia for crucial assistance in the design implementation of this site. Thanks, Phillip.

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    Pay a visit to the HARRY BOYKOFF page at Basketball Reference, sponsored by NewEnergyNews and Oil In Their Blood.

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  • TODAY AT NewEnergyNews, December 12:

  • TODAY’S STUDY: The Value Of Transportation Elecrification
  • QUICK NEWS, December 12: The “Fight-Climate-Change” Diet; Market For Advanced EV Batteries To Quadruple By 2026; The Low Lifecycle Costs In New Energy

    Tuesday, December 12, 2017

    TODAY’S STUDY: The Value Of Transportation Electrification

    Redefining Mobility Services in Cities; The Impacts of Making Transport Clean, Shared, Automated, and Connected

    Jan Cihlar, Lisa Jerram, Sam Abuelsamid, Scott Shepard, John Gartner, Rob Winkel, November 2017 (Navigant Research)

    Executive Summary

    The Push for Clean, Traffic Jam-Free Cities

    Around the world, major cities have been setting targets to combat the negative effects of local transport on public health, local pollution, noise levels, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Often, restricting or completely banning passenger cars from extensive areas of cities is seen as the solution to those issues and as a way to reduce traffic congestion and associated demand for limited space in urban areas (e.g., parking). Sustainable mobility plans that take this approach are counting on heavy investments in public transportation and biking infrastructure to compensate for the loss of personal vehicle mobility options.

    But what if personal light duty vehicles (LDVs) in cities could be made compatible with the future sustainable mobility system in a different form? Focusing on three key trends in personal mobility—vehicle automation, the push for cleaner powertrains, and the mobility as a service (MaaS) model—this white paper explores their combined prospective effects on the urban environment. Navigant Research finds that, in a MaaS model, battery or fuel cell powered automated vehicles can provide benefits in GHG and air pollutants reduction, reclaimed land value, and reduced energy consumption for transport.

    The Coming Age of Automated Vehicles

    Driving automation is already a reality in many industrial vehicle applications, and partial automation is becoming commonplace in all road vehicle classes. However, many governments feel unprepared for the operation of large numbers of vehicle fleets on public roads without people behind the wheel. New infrastructure investments, communication network upgrades, the need for fleets to operate in varied conditions, and concerns about cybersecurity are often cited as primary reasons for government concern.

    In the early deployment of fully automated vehicles, a driver will still need to be present to monitor vehicle status and deal with the more complex traffic situations. That period could last 5-10 years in challenging environments. Nevertheless, according to Navigant Research’s recent report Automated Driving Vehicles, markets are inexorably heading toward highly automated driving—which is expected to debut by 2020 and start to grow rapidly as soon as 2025.

    The question is whether cities are heading toward a future where small, on-demand, cheap car fleets are used as complementary options in city transport or for a major overhaul where nearly every trip is executed by a personal, automated driver. Economics, convenience, and safety will drive the shift toward on-demand automated vehicle services. If managed properly and coordinated as part of a multimodal transportation ecosystem, this shift could lead to reduced traffic congestion in cities, lowered demand for parking spaces, and beneficial energy and environmental impacts.

    Redefining Urban Transformation

    To highlight how this mobility transition will redefine the urban transportation environment, this white paper lays out a high adoption scenario of automated vehicles into the total fleet in a model city with 3 million inhabitants who collectively own 1.5 million personal vehicles. Due to the synergistic effect between driving automation, connectivity, the MaaS model, and the switch to cleaner powertrains, significant improvements can be achieved in a number of areas of concern to city governments and citizens. Figure 1.1 highlights Navigant Research’s analysis on the model city.

    A Bright Future Is Not Inevitable

    In light of its prospective positive impacts, the future of automated vehicles appears bright. However, to reach their potential, it will be crucial that automated vehicle fleets are operated as part of a multimodal ecosystem and integrated with public transport options. Together, these provide a spectrum of mobility solutions accessible to all regardless of economic status or location.

    Moreover, to fully capitalize on the promised benefits, municipal governments must play a role in the mobility system design. Questions remain in regard to the development of support infrastructure (e.g., charging stations for electric automated vehicles) and there are outstanding legal and ethical hurdles. To make this revolution possible, concerns must be addressed by key stakeholder groups. Navigant Research provides recommendations for each of these groups…

    Recommendations For Key Stakeholders

    Implications

    The mobility service revolution in cities will have crucial implications for three key stakeholder groups. Before it takes place though, several issues need to be addressed. Navigant Research has developed a set of recommendations for each of the key stakeholder groups.

    City planners and regulators:

    ‐ Establish legislative and ethical rules enabling operationalization of automated vehicles and MaaS in the city.

    ‐ Quantify the potential contribution to the city’s goals regarding local pollution, traffic management, and climate impact.

    ‐ Investigate the implications on public transport by focusing on behavioral aspects of city dwellers.

    ‐ Incentivize use of shared automated vehicle mobility fleets over personal vehicles and integrate them with mass transit to achieve optimal societal benefits. Aim to create multimodality systems.

    ‐ Quantify the potential impact on public areas and potential economic gains (e.g., by selling depaved areas to private entities).

    ‐ Investigate the infrastructure and spatial planning needs for charging and/or hydrogen refueling stations.

    ‐ Collaborate with mobility providers to ensure that services deployed meet the unique challenges of each city and its residents. Cities with large numbers of low income residents or lower population density (such as Detroit) have different challenges to address than somewhere as dense as Beijing or Mumbai, or even San Francisco.

    ‐ Hold MaaS providers, manufacturers, and communications responsible for cybersecurity and resilience at all levels from the vehicle to the edge to the cloud. Exploits of vulnerabilities could put many lives at risk and discourage residents from adopting automated mobility services.

    • Car manufacturers and mobility companies:

    ‐ Determine which cities are best suited to be first adopters based on factors like engagement of city stakeholders with innovative and smart mobility options or city design and geographic characteristics.

    ‐ Examine the disruptive shifts in the value chain revenue model. Identify areas of strategic focus.

    ‐ Define (new) customer groups and their demand patterns, consider expansion to provide new services (e.g., insourced vehicle maintenance).

    ‐ Develop powertrain of the future strategy by combining the knowledge on cost developments and city goals in regard to environmental impacts.

    ‐ Develop a range of services and vehicle types to meet the differing needs of cities based on population density, climate, and demographics.

    ‐ Put safety and security above all else. If consumers are not confident in the reliability and security of automated systems, they may resist adoption.

    • Utilities and energy companies:

    ‐ Quantify the demand shift for different energy carriers and investigate the impact on current energy infrastructure.

    ‐ Investigate the risk of asset stranding; i.e., will the infrastructure required for the early adopters still be needed in the high adoption phase?

    ‐ Collaborate with regulators and the transport value chain on infrastructure development in the cities. Identify the first movers proactively.

    ‐ Examine the plausibility of hydrogen as a transport fuel. What are the enabling conditions that would make hydrogen competitive with electrical transport?

    Conclusions

    The building blocks for automated driving systems are available, and Navigant Research forecasts that highly automated vehicles should be ready to deploy in volume by 2025. At the same time, various players from both inside and outside of the transportation sector are active in the development of the MaaS model. More likely, these on-demand automated services will be operating vehicle fleets with electric and/or hydrogen powertrains due to both regulatory and market pressures. These trends combined—fitting well with the principles of sharing and circular economy—have the potential to bring truly positive economic, environmental, and social impacts, all examined in this report. There are barriers present that might slow down the development, most notably infrastructural, legal, and ethical ones, but none of these seem prohibitive for the expected rollout of automated vehicle fleets.

    Key to unleashing this mobility revolution in a positive direction will be a collaborative management from a number of stakeholders (city planners and regulators, transportation companies, utilities, and energy companies). The future of city transport must be a multimodality ecosystem with public transport options integrated with automated vehicle fleets, which together provide a spectrum of mobility solutions accessible to all regardless of economic status or location.

    Its effects will spread unequally on different service providers. However, strategic positioning of the affected players can open up additional revenue streams (e.g., system orchestration) for some or limit the damage done to others (e.g., oil companies diversifying to green hydrogen production, or car rental companies providing maintenance and support to automated vehicle fleets not operated by OEMs).

    More investigation and analysis, in particular regarding the points listed in Section 5, are crucial in order to fully understand and adequately prepare for the future of transportation in cities.

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    QUICK NEWS, December 12: The “Fight-Climate-Change” Diet; Market For Advanced EV Batteries To Quadruple By 2026; The Low Lifecycle Costs In New Energy

    The “Fight-Climate-Change” Diet The diet that helps fight climate change; Do we all have to go vegan to save the world?

    Andy Murdock, December 12, 2017 (VOX)

    “…While only around six percent of the U.S. identifies as vegan, according to one recent survey, Americans are starting to embrace some vegetarian habits: Per capita beef consumption has been declining since the 1970s, dropping off steeply in the last decade…[If everyone were to move toward] the Mediterranean diet — which is rich in nuts and beans and has a lot of fish, maybe chicken once a week, maybe red meat only once a month…[it would be] the equivalent of taking about a billion or more cars of pollution out of the planet every year…[G]lobal adoption of a Mediterranean diet could help reduce global warming by up to 15 percent by 2050…[The Mediterranean diet also] can reduce the incidence of Type 2 diabetes, heart disease and other chronic diseases…[and increase] overall longevity…[Eliminating 90 percent of meat intake is more important than eliminating all of it and it] can take a bite out of climate change.” click here for more

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    Market For Advanced EV Batteries To Quadruple By 2026 Market Data: Advanced Energy Storage for…Light Duty Passenger and Medium and Heavy Duty Buses and Trucks…

    4Q 2017 (Navigant Research)

    “EV sales continue to rise rapidly around the world. Declining battery costs have positioned these vehicles for dramatic market success in the years to come, and long-range EVs are now competitive in price among economy brands after subsidies. This milestone marks a threshold likely to move EVs from a niche vehicle option to the next vehicle option for many light duty (LD) and some medium/heavy duty (MD/HD) vehicle consumers. Due to the effect of emissions compliance requirements, charging infrastructure considerations, and customer awareness, sales of battery EVs (BEVs), plug-in hybrid EVs (PHEVs), and hybrid EVs (HEVs)—collectively referred to as xEVs—continue to vary in popularity across all regions…[Lithium ion (Li-ion) battery chemistry] has taken precedence, particularly with BEVs and PHEVs [and advanced battery energy capacity for automotive applications is expected to increase from 125 gwh in 2017 to 568 gwh in 2026]…” click here for more

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    The Low Lifecycle Costs In New Energy New study smashes myths about “embodied” energy in wind and solar

    Simon Evans, 12 December 2017 (Carbon Brief via RenewEconomy)

    “Building solar, wind or nuclear plants creates an insignificant carbon footprint compared with savings from avoiding fossil fuels…[Understanding future emissions from low-carbon power systems by integration of life-cycle assessment and integrated energy modelling, which] measures the full lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions of a range of sources of electricity out to 2050, shows] the carbon footprint of solar, wind and nuclear power are many times lower than coal or gas with carbon capture and storage (CCS). This remains true after accounting for emissions during manufacture, construction and fuel supply…Critics sometimes argue that nuclear, wind or solar power have a hidden carbon footprint, due to their manufacture and construction…Yet zero-carbon sources of electricity are not the only ones to have a hidden, indirect carbon and energy footprint…For coal and gas, these lifecycle energy uses and emissions come from extraction machinery and fuel transport. Significantly, they also come from methane leaks at pipelines, well heads or coal mines. These lifecycle emissions continue, even if coal or gas plants add CCS, which also may not capture 100% of emissions at the power plant…” click here for more

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    Monday, December 11, 2017

    TODAY’S STUDY: How The New Energy Marketplace Is Growing And Shifting

    Two Markets, Overlapping Goals; Exploring The Intersection Of Rps And Voluntary Markets For Renewable Energy In The U.S.

    Todd Jones, July 2017 (The RPS Collaborative)

    Introduction

    State Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) 1 and voluntary markets for renewable energy in the United States share a common history—both began around the same time in the late 1990s with the expansion of retail choice and the advent of certificate trading.2 Since then, they have grown side by side and each has been a significant driver of renewable energy development.3 Twenty years later, they continue to share common accounting infrastructure—renewable energy certificates (RECs) and REC tracking systems. Perhaps most importantly, voluntary and RPS compliance markets share a common objective: more renewable energy delivered to grid customers.

    This paper explores interactions between RPS and voluntary markets for renewable energy in the U.S. and outlines principles for supporting continued growth of both markets. These principles preserve the ability of each market to make separate and incremental contributions to renewable energy, uphold accurate accounting, reduce complexity, and increase participation.

    Two Markets

    In the U.S., renewable power can be sold into a state RPS market (i.e., to meet compliance demand), where it is delivered to utility or supplier customers to meet state requirements. Or it can be sold into a separate voluntary market (i.e., to meet voluntary demand by companies and individuals or because it is economical), where it is either delivered to individual voluntary buyers or delivered to customers by a utility or supplier. Renewable energy projects may also sell their electricity into the broader wholesale power market, in which case it becomes part of the regional mix and is purchased as unspecified power.

    Of the 29 state RPS programs in the U.S. (plus Washington DC), all but two are “consumptionbased,” meaning they require that a certain percentage of electricity sales, or delivered or consumed electricity, is met or supplied with renewable resources.4 In other words, RPS programs ensure that the electricity that customers receive includes renewable energy.

    The voluntary market delivers renewable energy specifically to those customers who voluntarily purchase in excess or outside of what is required by law. Thousands of businesses and millions of individuals across the country voluntarily purchase green power and thousands of renewable energy generators, utilities and competitive suppliers across the country supply it to them, amounting to billions of kilowatt-hours of renewable energy annually.5 Demand drivers in the voluntary market include environmental leadership; carbon footprint and sustainability goals; marketing, brand and reputational benefits; recognition by peers, NGOs and federal programs like the EPA’s Green Power Partnership and Leadership Awards6 ; and increasingly, cost stability and savings…

    Tracking and Verification

    Both RPS and voluntary markets require a mechanism for determining who is getting the renewable energy that is generated. Renewable energy (and in fact all specified generation) cannot be physically delivered on a shared grid to specific customers; delivery and use can only be determined contractually. In the U.S., RECs are used as the essential accounting and tracking tool in both markets to allocate renewable generation to specific customers and to purchase green power, either to demonstrate RPS compliance or meet voluntary demand.

    RECs provide a standardized currency for renewable energy. They can help facilitate transactions, lower transaction costs, increase market participation, and increase available electricity product options. Each REC represents the generation attributes of one megawatt-hour (MWh) of renewable electricity that has been added to the grid. These attributes include the renewable fuel type, location, the greenhouse gas emissions profile (emissions per MWh) and the other environmental and social impacts and benefits of the generation. RECs are created at the point of generation, owned by the generator and then transacted to electricity distributors and suppliers (e.g., utilities) or directly to electricity consumers, either bundled with the electricity or separate from electricity. RECs are either created by a generator or issued by one of several electronic certificate tracking systems (REC tracking systems) that cover different regions of the U.S. Even in the case that a renewable generator is not registered with a tracking system, RECs are de facto created for each MWh of generation and may be transferred and retired contractually.

    All options for voluntarily using and purchasing renewable electricity in the U.S., including onsite generation, must include RECs to substantiate a renewable energy usage or environ-- mental claim. 8 In RPS markets, RECs are retired by load-serving entities (LSEs) and other regulated entities to verify that they are complying with state requirements to provide their customers with renewable energy. In other words, RECs are required for state RPS programs to claim that renewable electricity is delivered to or generated on behalf of customers in that state and for customers in that state to claim to be receiving renewable electricity due to the RPS.

    REC tracking systems provide exclusive issuance, trading, and retirement of RECs within markets for renewable energy to support compliance and credible claims. They also provide verification of generation data and can help ensure full aggregation of attributes. In these tracking systems, RECs are electronically serialized and issued to generators with accounts; they are tracked between account holders, and ultimately permanently retired or cancelled electronically by the entity making the claim or on behalf of an end-user making a claim.

    Each renewable generator registered with a tracking system has certificates issued for all its production that is put onto the grid. RECs are issued for all generation from registered generators and no RECs from registered generators are transferred outside of the tracking system. Transactions outside of REC tracking systems with facilities that are not registered are limited to special cases (e.g. where participation in the tracking system is too costly for very small generation units).

    Although REC tracking systems were sometimes initially built to serve either RPSs or the voluntary market, they, like the RECs themselves, are used or have been adapted to serve both markets. Tracking systems can help standardize and synchronize accounting rules and monitoring, reporting, and verification (MRV) practices between markets.

    Figure 1 shows the regional REC tracking systems in the U.S. and Canada. All but two of them are quasi-governmental functional support entities. The Midwest Renewable Energy Tracking System (M-RETs) is an independent non-profit, though it is referenced in state legislation. The North American Renewables Registry (NAR) is a private tracking system run by the private firm APX9 to cover generation in states and provinces that are not covered by other tracking systems, mainly non-RPS states.

    Geographic Scope

    RPS markets are subnational, as they are intended to produce “local” (which can be in-state or regional) renewable energy development and benefits. The voluntary renewable energy market, on the other hand, is national in scope, 10 so that voluntary purchasers can access renewable energy from across the country at the lowest cost. While the voluntary market uses regional REC tracking systems, each with slightly different issuance rules, this does not produce separate voluntary markets. RECs issued in any state or tracking system can be sold to and claimed by voluntary customers anywhere across the country. Voluntary buyers who want to purchase renewable energy from nearby generators can do so and there are "sub-markets" within the overall voluntary market based on consumer preferences for certain resource types, locations, product types, age of facilities or specific benefits, but these are considered part of the overall voluntary market and buyers may be located across the U.S.

    This means that while individual projects serving voluntary customers are located in individual states and produce local benefits, the voluntary market aggregates demand from across the country to drive renewable energy development at a national level. This development is not evenly distributed across the country. This is illustrated in Figure 2 and Figure 3 below, which show that the majority of voluntary supply comes from the middle of the country, while the majority of voluntary sales are made on the coasts.

    Eligibility and Oversight

    In the case of RPS programs, eligibility requirements are set by the states. Oversight and verification is provided by designated state agencies. RPS programs define the renewable resources or technologies that are eligible for compliance, and they can include “carve outs” or sub-quotas for certain technologies. Alternatively, some RPS programs use credit “multipliers” or incentive credits to incentivize certain technologies or generation to meet different policy goals. RPS programs can also specify or include buckets for different types of eligible procure-ment (for example, “bundled” vs. “unbundled” renewable energy). And RPS programs set rules for REC vintage and for whether RECs created in one year can be banked for use in a future year.

    The voluntary market is, for the most part, not regulated by governmental agencies. Rather, private, third-party standards and certifications are used to verify delivery and ownership. Green-e® is the leading third-party certification for voluntary renewable energy in the U.S. and Canada. Like state RPS programs, third-party standards for the voluntary market limit eligibility and set rules in terms of technology, date of facility construction/operation, and vintage of eligible sales. For example, Green-e limits eligibility based on date of construction, technology (limited biomass and hydropower), and REC vintage (certified sales made in a particular calendar year must be supplied with renewable energy generated in that year, the last six months of the prior year, or the first three months of the following year).

    Green-e also includes requirements that limit the location and type of supply that may be used for certain renewable energy products. For example, supply used for certified competitive electricity products and utility green pricing programs is limited to the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) region, Independent System Operator (ISO), Regional Transmission Organization (RTO) or Balancing Authority Area of the customers being served. Other rules at Green-e seek to ensure that the voluntary renewable energy and its benefits are surplus to those that are already delivered through state and federal programs and policies.11

    The voluntary market includes a wide variety of product types—from onsite self-generation to direct purchasing from specific generators to retail purchasing from a utility, competitive supplier, or REC marketer. These transactions may be bundled or unbundled…

    Intersections between RPS and Voluntary Markets

    There are many examples of facilities that were initially built to supply one market or the other and have since gone on to supply the other. This is good for both markets. For example, 360 wind facilities located in 29 states covering all regions of the country supplied both Green-e voluntary sales and state RPS programs in 2015. 20

    The voluntary and RPS markets also intersect in certain 100 percent renewable energy purchases—that is, they can work together to deliver 100 percent renewable energy. Certain voluntary programs, including Green-e, allow RPS renewable energy that also meets voluntary standard requirements to be included in 100 percent renewable electricity products that are sold by utilities subject to an RPS, so that voluntary purchasers do not have to purchase more than 100 percent renewable energy. For example, if the RPS is 25 percent and the utility is offering a 100 percent renewable energy voluntary product, the utility could potentially include the 25 percent RPS and provide an additional 75 percent renewables. If the 25 percent RPS meets the Green-e standard, the whole product, including the RPS portion, can be Green-e certified and the product content label would simply indicate 25 percent RPS and 75 percent voluntary. Other voluntary recognition programs do not allow this and will only recognize voluntary action.

    Another increasingly important intersection of voluntary and RPS markets is in corporate purchases or procurement that involves “REC arbitrage.” The existence of a national voluntary market can make it financially feasible for businesses and institutions to finance renewable energy projects that help a state meet its RPS compliance goals while allowing the financing organization to claim use of renewable energy. In regions where REC prices are high, due to strong RPS programs or limited local supply, a business or institution can dramatically lower its net cost of building renewable energy by selling the RECs into the local compliance market. But the business would still need RECs to substantiate its own usage and make credible usage and carbon footprint claims. The company can arbitrage RECs using the national voluntary market— the RECs from the owned generation can be sold off in the local compliance market to lower the net cost of the project and then cheaper RECs from the national voluntary market can be purchased, resulting in a cost savings. In this case, the specified renewable energy purchase is defined by the REC ultimately owned, and the customer cannot claim use of electricity from the local project, which was sold off. But this is an important example of how private investment and voluntary demand can support compliance markets without double counting or damaging voluntary claims.

    Principles for Supporting Compliance and Voluntary Market Growth

    There are three general conditions for credible voluntary renewable energy claims in the U.S.21

    No double counting. To ensure consumer confidence and delivery of real benefits to voluntary buyers, the same renewable energy (or any single attribute) cannot be counted or claimed more than once or by more than one party.

    Full attribute aggregation. Voluntary renewable energy usage claims require that customers own all of the associated environmental and social attributes of generation. None of the attributes that help define that generation can have been sold off, transferred, or claimed elsewhere. Most tracking systems and voluntary programs in the U.S. require that RECs include “all renewable energy attributes” or that they be “whole certificates.”

    Regulatory surplus. Voluntary means surplus or in addition to what is required by regulation. Voluntary buyers expect their investments to make an incremental difference. Voluntary renewable energy should be in excess of what is required by law and not simply reduce the costs of compliance for regulated entities.

    In all RPS states except Texas and Iowa, avoiding double counting will produce regulatory surplus for voluntary renewable energy.22 This is because the RPS requires delivery of renewable energy to grid consumers and renewable energy can only be delivered once to a single party. In this case, ensuring that the REC is not double counted in the voluntary market and toward an RPS will also ensure that it is surplus to the RPS if sold in the voluntary market.

    In these states, a single renewable facility may supply both the voluntary and compliance markets, but a single unit of renewable generation (MWh) must be used for one or the other.

    With these general conditions and interactions in mind, the following are steps that RPS programs can take if they want to facilitate and support voluntary renewable energy.

    1. Leave room for the voluntary market to go above and beyond what is required by the RPS…2. Use RECs…3. Align the state’s REC definition with other states and the voluntary market to the extent possible…4. Use REC tracking systems... 5. Take steps to avoid double counting…6. Protect regulatory surplus for the voluntary market…7. Avoid disaggregating attributes or splitting RECs…8. Consider the implications of creating multipliers that complicate accounting…

    Implications of Increasing RPS Targets for Voluntary Markets

    As shown above, RPS markets and the voluntary market grow together. Historically, we have seen voluntary activity continue to grow in places where there is a strong RPS and state-level clean energy policy. But the actual effect of increasing RPS targets on specific voluntary market dynamics depends on RPS eligibility requirements and market boundaries because this determines the available supply relative to RPS demand and the local REC price. Though voluntary demand can remain unaffected or actually increase with an increase to the RPS, the supply used to meet that demand may shift to locations outside of the RPS market boundary due to increased prices. Voluntary purchasers without a preference for “local” renewable energy may use the national voluntary market to procure the cheapest renewable energy. A stronger RPS can therefore create benefits for other regions in terms of voluntary renewable energy. It can grow voluntary supply in other regions, expand the voluntary market, and lead to more interstate trading of voluntary renewable energy.

    For example, the NEPOOL and PJM regions include some of the strongest RPS programs in the country. They are also historically supply-limited regions. Table 2 shows Green-e certified voluntary purchases (sales)30 along with generation in these regions supplying Green-e sales (supply). The dramatic difference between sales and supply (sales far in excess of local supply) indicates that voluntary purchasers in these regions are getting most of their renewable energy from outside the region.

    Conclusion

    RPS and voluntary markets share a common history and overlapping goals. In order for RPS and voluntary markets to remain mutually beneficial, they should remain separate and incremental, and the integrity of common market infrastructure, including RECs and REC tracking systems, should be preserved and protected. RPS administrators can help achieve this by following the general principles laid out above and by working with other state agencies to support the voluntary market. There are important opportunities for growing both markets where they intersect—namely, through facilities that supply both markets, 100 percent renewable energy products, and corporate procurement involving REC arbitrage.

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    QUICK NEWS, December 11: N.C. Millennial Women Unite For Climate Fight; The White House Threat To New Energy; What’s Bad News In The Tax Bill For New Energy

    N.C. Millennial Women Unite For Climate Fight Bringing women together to fight climate change; In Asheville, the Collider is changing the climate conversation — by including female voices

    Lauryn Higgins, December 10. 2017 (Salon)

    “…While the discussion surrounding climate change has come a long way…[there is still a] lack of women at the table…[The Collider, a North Carolina science and business innovation advocacy group, is working to change that because it sees women as] not only a necessity to providing climate change solutions in the field of science, but in every field…[A recent study showed] that educating women…[is a powerful way to avoid emissions and by slowing] population growth…[because women with more years of education have fewer and healthier children, and actively manage their reproductive health…[The Collider’s leaders say that as women come into climate science leadership roles it is] changing the course for what is to come…” click here for more

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    The White House Threat To New Energy Solar and Wind Power Face Serious Threats From the Trump Administration

    Justin Worland, December 8, 2017 (Time)

    “…[C]lean energy developers face a slew of unanticipated threats from the White House and Republicans in Congress that could slow the industry’s growth in ways unimaginable just a year ago…[E]nergy analysts were skeptical of his promise to [use regulatory rollbacks to] reverse the market forces driving the decline in coal…But the administration has not stopped at mere deregulation. From the threat of a subsidy for coal-fired power plants to a tax bill that hurts the financing of clean-energy projects, Republicans in Washington have launched a campaign against renewable energy that includes market interventions that alarm other industries, including oil and gas…[A]dvocates of transitioning from fossil fuels are pushing back…[but] the changed mood in Washington threatens to undermine the confidence of companies planning to invest in renewables…[T]he Trump Administration may impose tariffs on solar panels imported from China…[That could] send the price of solar panels spiking and drive down new installations…A tariff would hurt the key Trump constituency of blue-collar workers and the proposal has faced opposition from conservative groups like The Heritage Foundation…Perhaps the most dramatic threat to renewable energy—and also the most unlikely to succeed—comes in the form of a proposed Department of Energy rule to [protect grid reliability by subsidizing] coal-fired and nuclear power plants…That argument has been widely panned, including by the Department’s own research. But the [Trump-appointed Federal Energy Regulatory Commission] has final say…” click here for more

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    What’s Bad News In The Tax Bill For New Energy Another Victim Of The GOP Tax Bill? The Environment

    Frederick Hewitt, December 11, 2017 (WBUR)

    “…Most economists agree that the steep reductions in corporate tax rates [in the Republican tax plan] won’t stimulate nearly enough revenue to avoid bloating the deficit…To the list of economic sectors that will feel the hurt, add renewable energy…The House and Senate versions of the bill differ in their approaches to the wind and solar industries, but both are bad news for clean energy…[The Senate version jeopardizes] the financing of numerous clean energy projects under construction and [discourages] future clean energy investments…Wind projects have historically been financed using [the federal tax incentives]…With the proposed changes in the tax code, the tax credits for wind would be less valuable to potential investors because corporate tax rates would be lower and the credits would expire sooner…[The House version eliminates] the $7,500 tax credit for consumers who purchase electric vehicles…Its loss could be a serious blow to sales…[Both bills give big breaks to the oil and gas industry by opening new drilling opportunities and are] consistent with the pro-fossil-fuel positions that Trump and his party have been pushing…” click here for more

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    Saturday, December 09, 2017

    Tesla Adds World’s Biggest Battery To Aussie Wind

    Nobody could find the Holy Grail so Elon Musk went out and built it. From Elite NOW Agenda via YouTube

    From via YouTube

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    Solar And The Next Utilities

    This is about how utility customers around the country are using solar and why that is changing the way everybody will get their electricity. From PBS NewsHour via YouTube

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    Wind Builders On Wind

    The opportunities in this great national industry are still just emerging. From Climate Reality via YouTube

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    Friday, December 08, 2017

    The Climate Change Gourmet

    Climate change will change how you eat

    Rachel Layne, Decmber 8, 2017 (CBS MoneyWatch)

    “…[Climate change] is also making itself felt on a smaller scale, like your dinner plate…[R]ising global temperatures are already affecting the world's food supply, shifting production of some popular items, like certain kinds of seafood, and raising the price of staples like beef, wheat and coffee. Over the longer term, such trends are likely to alter what Americans eat. And depending on where you live and what you can afford, your food may also become less nutritious…Repeated droughts around the world also are destroying enough farm produce to feed 81 million people for a year and are four times more costly for economies than flood, the World Bank found… in a recent study. Beyond hindering food production, erratic rainfall patterns and longer droughts are causing a host of problems for cities, including businesses…By 2050, surface temperatures on the planet are predicted to rise between 1.9 degrees and 2.6 degrees Celsius…That will eventually change how and where the four most-eaten grain crops -- wheat, rice, maize (corn) and soybean, which combined account for two-thirds of human caloric intake -- are produced…[And because of one of the myriad feedback loops between people and the planet, foods] generate climate-changing greenhouse gasses…Beef, lamb, butter, shellfish, cheese, asparagus, pork, veal, chicken and turkey top the list of foods whose production produce require the most climate-damaging resources…” click here for more

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    UK Study Says Yes To Solar-Powered Electric Trains

    Imperial research finds electric railways could be powered by subsidy-free solar

    Neasan O’Neill, 6 December 2017 (Imperial College, London)

    “…[S]olar panels connected directly to railways in the UK could meet a significant amount of their electricity demand…[A substation system would use custom power electronics and bypass the electricity grid altogether…[Riding Sunbeams] found that solar arrays and integrated energy storage devices could supply around 10% of the energy needed to power trains on the UK’s DC electrified routes each year. Crucially, the research found that this clean, renewable power could be supplied at a lower cost than electricity supplied via the grid today…The biggest opportunity identified in the study is on the commuter rail network south of London. If 200 small solar farms were installed alongside railway lines they could provide 15% of the power needed to run trains on these routes…[A] similar system could provide 6% of the energy used on the London Underground and 20% of the electricity used by the Merseyrail network in Liverpool. The news was even better for electric railways closer to the equator, these could run entirely on solar power without having to rely on the local electricity grid…” click here for more

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    First Aussie Ocean Wind Project Gets $8BIL Funding

    Australia's first offshore wind farm wins international funding

    Cole Latimer, December 6, 2017 (Sydney Morning Herald)

    “Australia's first offshore wind farm, an $8 billion 2000 megawatt project, has secured financial backing from a major international green energy investment fund…Offshore Energy has joined with Danish fund management group Copenhagen Infrastructure Partnership to develop the renewable energy project...The offshore wind farm, dubbed the Star of the South, will be built 10 to 25 kilometres off the coast of Victoria’s Gippsland region, in the Bass Strait, and could provide one and a half times the energy of the now-closed Victorian Hazelwood coal-fired power station…Star of the South would comprise up to 250 turbines over an area of 574 square kilometres, and generate 8000-gigawatt hours of energy annually, enough to power 1.2 million homes, and account for nearly 20 per cent of Victoria’s energy demand…[Energy generation could begin] as early as 2024…Feasibility studies will be carried out in the second half of 2018…” click here for more

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    EU Solar Goes Digital To Open New Services

    ‘Vast market opportunities’ in solar arising from digitalisation, report finds

    Liam Stoker, 6 December 2017 (Clean Energy News)

    “Digitalisation in solar and across the wider European energy market could create ‘vast’ market opportunities and entirely new business models…[It has] the potential to both increase self-consumption and optimise grid feed-in of solar-generated electricity, in turn enhancing the profitability of the solar installations…And wider deployment of smart grid technologies could also provide solar with a boost, ending the so-called ‘fit and forget’ model of installing solar with little thought to its ongoing operation…[According to Digitalisation & Solar, technologies like blockchain and the use of cryptocurrencies in energy transactions can enable] grid-connected microgrids…Greater digitalisation would also enable network operators to better match demand with supply, enabling greater deployment of solar - and other renewables…” click here for more

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    Thursday, December 07, 2017

    City Mayors Unite To Fight Climate Change

    4 Takeaways From a Gathering of Mayors on Climate Change

    Mitch Smith, December 5, 2017 (NY Times)

    “…[In the just signed Chicago Climate Charter, over] 45 American mayors committed their cities to uphold the emissions standards laid out in the Paris agreement…[It] was the latest display of hostility by some of the nation’s Democratic mayors toward [Trump] policies. Barack Obama, who was president when the Paris accord was negotiated…[appeared and called] the mayors’ newly signed agreement ‘a powerful symbol to the world’… Many of the cities that signed on, including New York City, San Francisco and Portland, Ore., had previously laid out plans to uphold their part of the Paris agreement…In June, the United States Conference of Mayors called on the administration to recommit to the Paris standards. Another group, Climate Mayors, which claims 385 members, has rallied in defense of the Paris agreement. And a coalition of states, local governments and businesses announced plans this summer to try to uphold America’s Paris commitments despite the federal withdrawal…” click here for more

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    New Energy And Big Oil Unite Against Subsidies For Coal And Nuclear

    How Trump Did the Impossible: Getting Solar and Oil Lobbyists to Unite

    Ari Natter and Jennifer A Dlouhy, December 5, 2017 (Bloomberg News)

    “…Within hours of Energy Secretary Rick Perry releasing a proposal to overhaul the country’s power markets to advantage unprofitable coal and nuke plants…[a team of unlikely allies [came together], including solar installers, oil refineries and natural gas drillers, all of whom were worried that the plan would raise electricity costs and undercut their fuel source in the power markets….[The American Council on Renewable Energy] joined the American Petroleum Institute and 19 other groups to submit comments that…dubbed the plan ill defined, unwarranted and unreasonable…The lobbying is aimed at the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, which oversees the nation’s electricity markets and is set to decide by Dec. 11 whether or how to act on the Energy Department’s proposal. If approved, it could…[give] unprofitable coal power plants an edge against more economical ones that run off cheap wind, solar and natural gas…[by allowing] power plants with 90 days of fuel on site to charge customers more money. Coal and nuclear plants store their fuel at the plant; natural gas and renewables typically don’t…Estimates [of how much it would raise customers’ bills] range from a few hundred million dollars to more than $200 billion…” click here for more

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    California Would Sell Only EVs After 2040

    Electric Cars Only: California Bill Would Ban Gas-Powered Cars By 2040

    Summer Meza, December 6, 2017 (Newsweek)

    “Producing and registering gas-powered cars would be illegal in California by 2040 if an upcoming bill is passed by the state legislature…[California Assemblymember Phil Ting will introduce the bill] when lawmakers return to Sacramento for the next legislative session, as part of a plan to phase out gas-powered cars and embrace battery electric and hydrogen fuel-cell cars…Transportation is the biggest contributor to greenhouse gas pollution, surpassing power plants this year for the first time in four decades, according to the Energy Information Administration. Electricity production has been moving toward ‘clean’ energy over coal in recent years, but the transport sector hasn’t made as many advances in reducing emissions…In California, gas-powered cars will be required to increase their fuel efficiency to 54.5 miles per gallon by 2025, but lawmakers like Ting want to take things even further…China, France, Norway, India, and the U.K. have passed similar measures and are counting on automakers to move toward affordable electric options as quickly as possible…” click here for more

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    Utilities In A Time Of Solar

    Rethinking the utility company as solar power heats up

    William Brangham, December 6, 2017 (PBS News Hour)

    …[The rapidly plummeting price of solar panels has led to a boom in rooftop installations and jobs…[and the] solar industry now employs almost three times as many people as the coal industry. This growth is also raising questions about how utility companies should respond…[One Vermont resident installed solar] panels five years ago. In the summer, with its ample sun, they generate more electricity than [the resident] can use, so the extra energy is sent to the local utility, Green Mountain Power…[and the credit is used] in the winter…[taking the bill from $200 or more per month to] nothing…[New batteries leased from Green Mountain Power for $30 a month will allow the resident to] operate independently from the grid…[and] sell electricity back to the utility during peak usage, even when the sun isn’t shining…[Green Mountain Power’s CEO sees this as part of] a consumer-led revolution to distributed resources and a completely different [utility business model and argues] even more populous cities and states need to change the way they think about energy delivery…” click here for more

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    Wednesday, December 06, 2017

    ORIGINAL REPORTING: California Grid Users Collaborate to Streamline Communication Systems

    Stop, collaborate and listen: California stakeholders want to open electric system communications; IOUs, DER providers and CAISO collaborate on streamlining communications for higher DER penetration

    Herman K. Trabish, June 22, 2017 (Utility Dive)

    Editor’s note: Since this story ran, plans and work to streamline distribution system automation and move to a self-healing grid have accelerated across the country.

    An unprecedented collaboration between California’s grid operator, its investor-owned utilities, and third-party distributed resource providers could streamline electric system communications in preparation for higher distributed energy resource penetration. The groundbreaking work maps out plans to interconnect the bulk transmission system to distributed energy resources (DERs) through utility-operated distribution systems, achieving a new level of communication between the transmission system operator, the distribution system operator, and the DER provider.

    Technology advances and customer demand are transforming the electric power, according to a newly-released report from the California Independent System Operator (CAISO), Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E), Southern California Edison (SCE) and San Diego Gas & Electric (SDG&E) and other stakeholders. DERs are beginning to reach significant penetration levels on the emerging decentralized system, and are on their way to becoming key resources, the paper noted. The working group’s objective is to resolve operational challenges preventing transmission operators and distribution operators from working with private sector developers to meet consumer demand for DER… click here for more

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    ORIGINAL REPORTING: How To Get The Big Benefits Of Grid-Integrated Water Heaters

    Utilities in hot water: Realizing the benefits of grid-integrated water heaters; Water heaters offer storage capabilities at a fraction of the cost of batteries. The challenge is getting everyone a piece of the returns.

    Herman K. Trabish, June 20, 2017 (Utility Dive)

    Editor’s note: Attention to this and other low-hanging load shifting opportunities is growing as utilities and system operators look for ways to flatten peak demand and the costs of its spiking.

    A wave of interest is building in grid-integrated water heating (GIWH) as a path to utility system flexibility at a fraction of the cost of battery energy storage. At last count, 53.6 million of the 118.2 million U.S. water heaters were electric. Each could act as a battery for load shifting, peak shaving, or to integrate renewables, according to a Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP) paper. Hot water is used largely by residential utility customers in morning and evening hours, wrote RAP Sr. Advisor Jim Lazar. But it can be heated when demand on the system is low and the stored hot water could then be used during the morning and evening without increasing system burden, Lazar wrote. To optimize the use of variable renewables, it could be heated at night to take advantage of high wind production and at midday to take advantage of abundant solar production.

    Effective utility control of residential water heating could integrate as much as 100,000 MW of additional U.S. wind and solar energy, Lazar wrote.Transforming the U.S. electric water heater fleet to 100% GIWH represents a $3.6 billion per year market, according to think tank Rocky Mountain Institute (RMI). Utilities, GIWH manufacturers, installers, solar companies, aggregators, and customers themselves would all be able to benefit from the opportunity. Utilities across the country are testing hot water-as-storage. There are GIWH pilots at Portland General Electric, Arizona Public Service, and Green Mountain Power in Vermont. System operator PJM has introduced GIWH for frequency regulation and the California Energy Commission is discussing GIWH, according to Brattle Principal Ryan Hledik, co-author of a recent paper describing the GIWH opportunity… click here for more

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