TODAY’S STUDY: A NEW ENERGY YEAR IN SUM
2011 Renewable Energy Data Book
October 31, 2012 (NREL)
• The installed global renewable electricity capacity nearly doubled between 2000 and 2011, although renewable energy is a relatively small portion of total energy supply both globally and in the United States.
• Renewable electricity represented nearly 13% of total installed capacity and more than 12% of total electric generation in the United States in 2011. Installed renewable electricity capacity is more than 146 gigawatts (GW).
• In 2011 in the United States, wind and solar photovoltaics (PV) were two of the fastest growing electric generation technologies. In 2011, cumulative installed wind capacity increased by nearly 17% and cumulative installed solar photovoltaic capacity grew more than 86% from the previous year.
• Worldwide, wind energy is one of the fastest growing renewable electricity technologies— between 2000 and 2011, wind electricity generation worldwide increased by a factor of 13. The United States experienced even more dramatic growth, as installed wind electricity capacity increased by a factor of 18 between 2000 and 2011.
• In the United States, renewable electricity has been capturing a growing percentage of new capacity additions during the past few years. In 2011, renewable electricity accounted for more than 35% of all new electrical capacity installations in the United States—a large change from 2004 when all renewable electricity captured only 2% of new capacity additions.
• Since 2006, the United States has been the world’s leading ethanol producer. Between 2000 and 2011, U.S. production of corn ethanol increased by a factor of 8. The use of ethanol in gasoline blends in the United States has tripled since 2005.
Summary: Renewable Energy in the United States
• Since 2000, renewable electricity installations in the United States have more than tripled, and in 2011 represent 146 GW of installed U.S. capacity.
• Installed renewable electricity capacity has grown at a compounded annual average of nearly 4.2% per year from 2000–2011.
• U.S. renewable electricity in 2011 is 12.8% of total overall installed electricity capacity and 12.8 % of total annual generation in the United States.
• Wind and solar photovoltaics are the fastest growing renewable electricity sectors. In 2011 in the United States, wind installed capacity increased by nearly 17% and solar photovoltaic installed capacity grew more than 86% from the previous year.
• In 2011 in the United States, biomass produced about 11% of total renewable electricity generation, wind produced 23%, solar (photovoltaics and concentrating solar power) produced 1%, hydropower produced 62%, and geothermal produced 3%.
• Wind energy accounted for about 75% of newly installed U.S. renewable electricity capacity in 2011.
• Electricity generation from biomass, geothermal, and hydropower have remained relatively stable since 2000.
Summary: State Renewable Energy Information
• In 2011, Washington had the most installed renewable electric capacity of any U.S. state (23,970 MW).
• In 2008, Texas became the national leader in wind power development, and in 2011 has more than 10 GW of wind capacity installed.
• California installed 921 MW of wind and 538 MW of solar capacity in 2011, the most of any state.
• A combination of state incentives and renewable portfolio standards for renewable electricity and renewable resource development has driven renewable growth in many states. Some wind development was driven by economics in select locations
Summary: Global Renewable Energy Development
• Cumulative global renewable electricity installed capacity has grown by 72% from 2000–2011 (from 748 GW to 1,285 GW).
• Renewable energy accounts for 22% of all global electricity generation (4,309 TWh).
• Wind and solar energy are the fastest growing renewable electricity technologies worldwide. Wind generation grew by a factor of 13 and solar photovoltaic generation grew by a factor of more than 51 between 2000 and 2011.
• In 2011, Germany led the world in cumulative solar photovoltaic installed capacity. The United States leads the world in geothermal and biomass installed capacity. China leads in wind, and Spain leads in solar thermal electric generation (STEG).
• In the United States, installed wind electricity capacity increased more than 18 fold between 2000 and 2011.
• In the United States, wind experienced strong growth in 2011 and nearly 7 GW of new capacity was added. California led the United States in wind installations in 2011, installing 921 MW of wind capacity.
• In 2010, China surpassed the United States as the world leader in cumulative installed wind capacity, with more than 63 GW installed as of the end of 2011.
• Solar electricity generation has grown by a factor of more than 9 between 2000 and 2011, but still represents a very small part of overall U.S. electricity generation (0.2%).
• Countries with extensive solar policies—such as Germany, Spain, Japan, and Italy— lead the world in solar photovoltaic (PV) deployment. Similarly, U.S. states with extensive solar incentives lead the United States in both cumulative and annual installations in 2011 (California, New Jersey, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico).
• U.S. manufacturers currently have a small share of the world PV market. Asian— particularly Chinese—manufacturers lead the market with nearly 77% of the global photovoltaic cell production.
• A number of concentrating solar power (CSP) plants came online in 2011, including 11.7 MW in the United States.
• U.S. geothermal electricity generation has remained relatively stable from 2000 to 2011, with the past 11 years experiencing an average of 1.2% growth in annual capacity installed.
• The United States leads the world in installed geothermal electricity capacity and generation, with most of that power installed in California.
• As a base-load source of energy, geothermal is distinct from other renewables such as wind and solar, because it can provide consistent electricity.
• Biopower electricity generation currently accounts for 11% of all renewable energy generated in the United States.
• Biomass electricity primarily comes from wood and agricultural residues that are burned as a fuel for cogeneration in the industrial sector (such as in the pulp and paper industry).
• U.S. installed biopower capacity has grown recently, with a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 2.0% from 2006–2011.
• Hydropower capacity has remained essentially constant between 2000–2011, with generation fluctuation depending on water supply.
• Hydropower remains the largest source of renewable electricity generation, primarily large-scale hydropower, which accounts for 7.9% of U.S. electricity generation.
Summary: Advanced Water Power
• U.S. interest in advanced water power—such as tidal, river, ocean current, and ocean wave energy—has been steadily growing over the past few years, with many prototype projects in testing stages and permits being filed at the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC).
• No commercial wave or tidal plants came online in 2011, although two tidal power projects received licenses from FERC in early 2012: one being developed by Ocean Renewable Power Company in Cobscook Bay Maine, and one by Verdant Power in the East River of New York City.
• More information may be found at these websites:
– Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC): www.ferc.gov/industries/ hydropower/gen-info/licensing/hydrokinetics.asp
– The Water Power Program at the U.S. Department of Energy: www1.eere.energy.gov/water
– The Ocean Energy Systems Implementing Agreement, established by the International Energy Agency: www.ocean-energy-systems.org
• As of October 2012, there were approximately 58 hydrogen fueling stations in the United States.
• There are more than 1,000 stationary fuel cell installations worldwide, 35 of which are greater than 1 MW in capacity.
Renewable and Alternative Fuels
• Corn ethanol production in contrast to Brazil's ethanol, which is produced from sugar cane, continues to expand rapidly in the United States. Between 2000 and 2011, production increased more than 8 times.
• U.S. ethanol production grew nearly 5% in 2011 over 2010 to reach almost 14,000 million gallons per year.
• In 2011, the United States* produced 62.2% of the world’s ethanol, followed by Brazil at 24.9%, the European Union at 5.4%, China at 2.5%, and Canada at 2.1%.
• In 2011, the number of electric vehicle charging stations expanded by a factor of 9 to 6,033.
• Biodiesel has expanded from a relatively small production base in 2000, to a total United States production of 1 billion gallons in 2011. However, biodiesel is still a small percentage of the alternative fuel pool in the U.S., as 13 times more ethanol was produced in 2011.
• Biodiesel production in the United States in 2011 is 214 times what it was in 2001.
• The United States leads the world in biodiesel production, followed by Germany, Argentina, Brazil, and France.
• Worldwide, biodiesel production globally grew more than 12% from 2010 to 2011.
Summary: Clean Energy Investment
• U.S. investment in renewable energy has grown dramatically in the past decade, and in 2011 annual investment reached more than $35 billion.
• U.S. investment in wind energy projects grew from $378 million in 2001 to more than $5 billion in 2011.
• In 2011, U.S. venture capital and private equity investment in renewable energy technology companies was nearly $7 billion—up from $253 million in 2001.
• U.S. venture capital and private equity investment in solar technology companies has increased from $50 million in 2001 to more than $1.7 billion in 2011.