From Rust To New Energy
Could Rust Be a New Source of Renewable Energy? Using kinetic energy, it's got the potential to be more efficient than solar panels.
David Grossman, July 30, 2019 (Popular Mechanics)
“…Rust is often associated with decay and disrepair…[But a new study shows thin films of the iron oxide] could be used to generate electricity when interacting with salt water. Combining metal compounds and salt water is a well-known way of conducting electricity, since chlorine and sodium ions can carry electrical currents…[Caltech research would convert] the kinetic energy of moving salt water into electricity…[This] electrokinetic effect can generate electricity with around 30 percent efficiency—that's noticeably higher than modern solar panels…[While other metals used for the electrokinetic effect are expensive, rust] is very easy to acquire…
[Natural rust is] too thick to be mass-produced, and doesn't spread evenly. The rust involved with this [concept] would have to be developed with consistency in a lab…[using] a process called physical vapor deposition (PVD)…[With it, scientists created] thin films of rust a mere 10 nanometers thick, thousands of times thinner than a human hair…[As iron electrons flowed through saltwater,] the scientists found that it generated several tens of millivolts…[A 10 square meter plate] would generate a few kilowatts per hour—enough for a standard U.S. home…The vast majority of the planet's water is salt water, making it a ripe target for scientists looking to generate energy…” click here for more